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We screened a total of abstracts for the following inclusion criteria: The present review evaluates neural deficits in the domains of inhibitory control and error processing in individuals with substance dependence and in those showing excessive addiction-like behaviours. The P3, the second ERP component involved in inhibitory control, is a positive-going wave emerging — ms after stimulus onset. Differences among the major classes of substances of abuse were identified and involve stronger neural responses to errors in individuals with alcohol dependence versus weaker neural responses to errors in other substance-dependent populations. We refer to the tables for study details, such as participant characteristics and within-subject contrasts, that were used for between-subject analyses in our discussion of these results.

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However, these tasks also measure other processes, such as conflict resolution, response selection and attention. Table 1 , displays all relevant participant characteristics, such as age, sex, abstinence, disorder and treatment status. Some researchers suggest that this region monitors response conflict or the likelihood of errors 55 , 56 rather than error processing per se. With regard to behavioural addictions, some evidence has been found for similar neural deficits; however, studies are scarce and results are not yet conclusive. The literature review is organized according to primary substance of abuse i. We screened a total of abstracts for the following inclusion criteria: The proportion of correctly inhibited no-go trials reflects the ability to inhibit automatic behaviour. Conclusion Current addiction theories were supported by identifying consistent abnormalities in prefrontal brain function in individuals with addiction. Abstract Background Several current theories emphasize the role of cognitive control in addiction. Other suggested behavioural addictions, such as excessive eating, 13 computer game playing or Internet use 9 are not included as behavioural addictions in DSM-5 because of a current lack of sufficient scientific evidence for similar dysfunctions in people with these behaviours and those with substance dependence. Regardless of the task paradigm, reaction times on trials after performance errors are usually longer than reaction times on trials following correct responses, a process referred to as post-error slowing. The source of the P3 has been found to be close to motor and premotor cortices. Table 1 Patient characteristics of included studies Study. Most stop-signal paradigms use a staircase method, implying that the number of errors in the task is deliberately kept constant to calculate the SSRT. A second goal of this review is to contribute to the ongoing discussion about the differences and similarities between substance dependence and other excessive behaviours that have been proposed to be related to addiction but that do not involve the ingestion of substances. Limitations Task design and analysis techniques vary across studies, thereby reducing comparability among studies and the potential of clinical use of these measures. The ERN and Pe appear to be independent as they are differentially sensitive to experimental manipulations and individual differences in task performance, and they reflect different stages of error processing. Therefore, the main aim of the present review is to evaluate the consistency of findings of fMRI and ERP studies investigating inhibitory control and error processing in the major classes of substance-dependent populations. All included articles were required to be published in peer-reviewed journals and indexed in PubMed or Embase before June Literature review Selection of studies We performed a literature search on PubMed and Embase using search medical subject headings MeSH for substance-dependent populations and populations with possible behavioural addictions. This review starts with an explanation of the experimental task paradigms most frequently used to measure inhibitory control and error processing. The combined evaluation of event-related potential ERP and functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI findings in the present review offers unique information on neural deficits in addicted individuals. In addition, an apparent failure to adaptively learn from previous harmful behaviour seems characteristic for individuals with substance dependence. These neural deficits, however, were not always associated with impaired task performance. Reaction times, the number of errors and this post-error slowing are all regarded as behavioural indices of error monitoring.

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